Vstup Turecka do Evropské unie v kontextu zahraniční politiky vůči Sýrii
(The Accession of Turkey to the European Union in the Context of Foreign Policy towards Syria)
Politické vedy, Volume 22, Number 3/2019, pages 68-88
Recommended form for quotation of the article / Odporúčaná forma citácie článku:
BAUEROVÁ, H. - HÁJKOVÁ, K. 2019. Vstup Turecka do Evropské unie v kontextu zahraniční politiky vůči Sýrii. In Politické vedy. [online]. Vol. 22, No. 3, 2019. ISSN 1335 –2741, pp. 68-88. Available at: http://doi.org/10.24040/politickevedy.2019.22.3.68-88
Turkish foreign policy towards Syria has undergone several changes over the last twenty years. Turkish foreign policy could be divided into two periods 1) from 2002 to 2011; 2) from 2011 -2017. In the first period, Europeanization developed and good relations was established with Syria. The main determinant become Davutoğlu's policy of good neighborliness, which was reflected in relations with both the EU and Syria. Turkey stylized itself as a regional leader, who is approaching the European integration project relatively quickly under the influence of Erdoğan's policy. The short-term change in foreign policy changed in the second period. After the outbreak of the civil war, the Assad regime refused Turkish assistance and established good relations with the Kurdish PKK. (Introductiory statement) Together with a shift from Syria, we could see a shift from the pro-European direction. (Objective) The change in the relationship between Turkey and the EU came after the outbreak of the migration crisis. (Scope) The EU is willing to overlook the Turkish shortcomings and the top-down Europeanization (in the first period) changed (in the second period) into a down-top trend where Turkey had a significant impact on EU migration policy as well as internal security. Internal political changes diverted Turkey from Europe and democracy. (Findings) A Turkish example reaffirmed the claims of social constructivists about the influence of individuals on the foreign policy of the state and also showed the learning process in which Turkey learned to negotiate with the EU while pursuing its own interests. (Conclusions) The development of Turkey's foreign policy shown the influence of political elites whose interest was motivated not by a move towards European integration, but by the pursuit of their own needs.
Key words: Turkey, Syria, European Union, conditionality, europeanization, migration crisis, refugees, Erdoğan, social constructivism, enlargement policy