Miroslava Pavlíková – Jan Hanzelka

Nástroje ruských aktivních opatření ve vybraných zemích EU

(Tools of the Russian Active Measures in Chosen Countries of the EU)

Politické vedy, Volume 22, Number 1/2019, pages 108-131



Recommended form for quotation of the article / Odporúčaná forma citácie článku:
PAVLÍKOVÁ, M. - HANZELKA, J. 2019. Nástroje ruských aktivních opatření ve vybraných zemích EU. In Politické vedy. [online]. Vol. 22, No. 1, 2019. ISSN 1335 – 2741, pp. 108‑131. Available at:


The concept of active measures, which is part of influence operations of Russia, covers a broad and complex range of activities, including political, military, economic, diplomatic, media focused as well operations of secret services. During the past few years, these activities affected various regions of the European Union. The article aims to identify and analyze tools of Russian active measures used within the European Union countries with different geopolitical patterns and relations to Russia. Specifically, the study focuses on three state actors – Austria, Italy, and Bulgaria. First, in the theoretical part authors deconstruct the concept with the use of comparison to similar ones: hybrid warfare and information warfare. Next, authors consider the concept of active measures as the most proper for analyzing Russian influence operations in the European Union. The analysis and comparison of case studies have both shown clear differences and similar patterns in used active measures tools, such as an essential position of extreme right parliament parties. The concept of active measures has proven to be a helpful tool when analyzing Russian influence operations in its typical complexity.

 Key words: Active Measures, Hybrid Warfare, Information Warfare, Russia, EU

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