Martin Solik – Vladimír Baar

Koncepcia fašizmu a antifašizmu ako sofistikovaná súčasť mocenskej stratégie Ruskej federácie

(The Conceptions of the Fascism and Anti-Fascism as a Sophisticated Part of the Power Strategy of the Russian Federation)

Politické vedy, Volume 22, Number 1/2019, pages 8-79



Recommended form for quotation of the article / Odporúčaná forma citácie článku:
SOLIK, M. - BAAR, V. 2019. Koncepcia fašizmu a antifašizmu ako sofistikovaná súčasť mocenskej stratégie Ruskej federácie. In Politické vedy. [online]. Vol. 22, No. 1, 2019. ISSN 1335 – 2741, pp. 8-79. Available at: 


Phenomenon of non-military power in international relations theory has been quite intensively investigated in recent years in the form of soft and smart power, which effectively combines soft and hard power. These concepts of power were introduced by Joseph S. Nye, a prominent American professor in international relations at Harvard University. However this research rather reflected these type of powers in the Western or liberal perception. Specifics of the smart power (and its tools) in the perception of non-Western and illiberal countries such as China, Russian federation or Turkey have been developed only in a few specialized studies. Most of the researchers within the frame of international relations could not imagine attractive soft power tools and effective smart power tools in Russia´s foreign policy. For this reason was drawn this study. Russia’s renewed influence has caused strategic paralysis in the West. The root cause is a failure to understand the true nature of Russian smart power, which, as a unique adaption of J. S. Nye’s original theory, enables Russian strategists to manipulate their adversaries—seemingly at will. The aim of this study is to explain how Russian smart power uses deception to disrupt the awareness of its target, create opportunities to apply coercion, and legitimize its attractive soft power. Concretely the study analyze the conceptions of fascism and anti-fascism that have become a sophisticated part of the Russian complex smart power and presents how this form of the power works. In this study are presented specific instruments promoting anti-fascist Russian smart power abroad. Success or failure of this form of the power is subsequently evaluated in the conclusion.

 Key words: Fascism, Anti-fascism, Russian federation, Soft power, Smart power, Russian identity


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